What are the problems? What can we achieve?

Coherence:
- challenges for single-molecule single-shot imaging
- can we extrapolate from studies for small systems (atoms, small molecules) to large systems
- development of quantum-mechanical approaches to treat large systems (i.e., beyond classical molecular dynamics)
- noise in scattering patterns due to ionization
- inversion problem in the presence of noise
- coherent scattering from dynamically evolving targets
- impact of pulse envelope effects
- need for improved modeling of single-shot scattering patterns
- nonclassical correlations in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy
- quantum effects in single-shot imaging
- ankylography (inversion problem)

High (x-ray) intensity:
- perturbative vs. nonperturbative processes
- many-body effects in dense, excited systems
- opportunities enabled by high intensity (for instance, x-ray nonlinear optics)
- identification of mechanisms underlying ionization and nonlinear processes
- differences between optical and x-ray regimes
- role of hollow-atom formation in coherent diffractive imaging
- x-ray propagation effects in condensed matter (matter under extreme conditions)
- possibilities for pulse compression and spectral broadening
- role of shake-off and double Auger at high intensity

Ultrafast:
- delay in photoemission: what is the role of electron correlation effects?
- dynamics of one-photo double ionization
- imaging in strong field via electron recollision (inversion problem)
- preparation of hole wave packets: role of coherences
- opportunities for probing ultrafast nonadiabatic nuclear dynamics
- conical intersections and coherent diffractive imaging
- computational challenge: high harmonic generation using a long-wavelength driving field
- theoretical/computational tools for time-resolved XANES/EXAFS/RIXS ...
- beyond photochemistry: time domain studies of nontrivial chemical reactions
- dynamics in correlated electron systems
- many-electron problem in strong-field physics